EVALUATION OF PUBLIC HOUSING

Project TopicsEVALUATION OF PUBLIC HOUSING   ABSTRACT 

Governments all over the world are taking steps to address the problem of providing adequate and affordable housing to their people. Ogun State Government in Southwest  Nigeria is not left out in this drive, and thus initiated an integrated public housing programme in 2003 with the assumption that the use of  different strategies  by  different organizations  will result in  the provision of adequate housing and  improved quality of life  for different categories of people in  the State.  In view of the fact that the validity of this assumption has not been formally examined, this research therefore aimed at evaluating public housing in Ogun State, Nigeria, with a view to examining the extent to which  the different housing delivery strategies have provided adequate and satisfactory housing and influenced the quality of life of residents of public housing in the State. 
Survey  and qualitative research strategies as well as  proportionate and purposive  sampling 
techniques were used  in selecting respondents.  Primary data  was obtained  through the 
administration of questionnaire  to 90 purposely selected staff members, and oral  interviews with four senior management staff in  four key public housing agencies. In addition, questionnaire and observation schedule were used in obtaining data from 517  housing units  selected from four different housing delivery strategies based on the proportion  of their occurrence in nine  newly constructed  public  housing  estates. The  quantitative  data was  analysed using frequencies, percentages, cross tabulations,  discriminant, principal component  and categorical regression analyses; while the qualitative data was analysed using content analysis. Findings  show  that  the  four public  housing agencies sampled  were rated as having adequate organizational capacity in public housing provision. However, housing provided by the agencies was  rated affordable,  inadequate and not satisfactory by the residents. Although, public housing estates  sampled  lacked  basic  socio-economic  infrastructure, majority of the respondents felt satisfied with life in their current residences. The  study found significant differences  in  socio-economic characteristics of residents and  levels of housing adequacy and satisfaction across the four strategies. Whereas the Core housing strategy  provided housing for low-income earners and  was rated as having provided the most adequate and satisfactory housing, the Turnkey and Public-Private Partnership (PPP)  strategies provided  the least adequate  and  satisfactory  housing respectively  for middle-income earners.  The  Shell strategy which provided housing for high-income class had the  highest proportion of those who felt  satisfied with  life.  Satisfaction with management of housing estates and housing unit attributes among other attributes discriminated between the residents who were satisfied with life and those who were not.    Housing  unit attributes were rated the most adequate and satisfactory while  socio-economic infrastructure and neighbourhood facilities were rated the least adequate and least satisfactory housing attributes.   
Findings also show that housing delivery strategies, additional space requirement in the housing 
units,  organizational capacity as well as age,  income and  tenure  status  of respondents  among others were  significant predicators of  housing adequacy and residential satisfaction  in the study area.  Residential satisfaction, tenure status, housing adequacy, housing delivery strategies, length of residency, income and age of respondents were factors that influenced satisfaction with life in the  housing  estates.  Although  findings of the study  are  consistent with the findings of prior research; the categorical regression analysis (R2
 = 1.000, F=718909256; P=0.000) however shows that adequate housing  (Beta=1.000, F=528886811; P=0.000) was  the strongest predictor of, and closely related to,  residential satisfaction; and that housing adequacy and residential satisfaction have significant influence on satisfaction with life. The  findings  imply  that  the different housing delivery strategies used in public housing perform differently in terms of residents’ perceived adequacy and satisfaction; the levels of housing adequacy and satisfaction  as well as quality of life in public housing   can be enhanced through adequate  provision and maintenance of basic housing infrastructure and neighbourhood facilities;   housing  adequacy  and satisfaction  can be used as    synonymous concept in the evaluation of housings; and  the underlying assumption in public housing in Ogun State is valid.  TABLE OF CONTENTS 
Title Page —————— – i 
Dedication ————————–   ii 
Certification ————————   iii 
Dedication ————————–   iv 
Acknowledgement ——————–v 
Abstract ———————- vi  

Chapter 1     INTRODUCTION 
1.0     Background of Study—————-1 
 1.1    Statement of the Problem ——————–3 
 1.2    Aim of Study—————–6 
 1.3    Objectives of Study——————-6 
  1.4   Justification——————-6 
  1.5    Scope of Study————–8  
  1.6    Summary———————8 

Chapter 2     THE CONTEXT OF STUDY—————10 
 2.0.0 Introduction——————10 
2.1.0 Basic Information on the study area———-10 
2.1.1 Location and Size of Ogun State————–10 
  2.1.2 Administrative Setting—————-12 
 2.1.3 Demographics and Socio-economic Characteristics of Ogun State———-12 
2.2.0 Public Housing in Ogun State —————-14 
    2.2.1 Public Housing in Ogun State: Historical Perspective ———14 
    2.2.2 The 2003 Ogun State Housing Policy———-16 
    2.2.3 The Public Housing Programme in Ogun State and its Objectives—-18 
     2.2.4 Housing Delivery Strategies in the Public Housing Programme——18 
(i) Government Aided Core Housing Strategy ——–19 
(ii) Turnkey Housing Delivery Strategy—————-21 
(iii)Public-Private Partnership Housing Delivery Strategy—-24 
(iv)  Shell Stage Housing Delivery Strategy———–26 
 2.3.0 Public Housing Agencies in Ogun State————28
       2.3.1 Ogun State Housing Corporation————–29 
2.3.2 Ogun State Property and Investment Corporation————30
2.3.3 Gateway City Development Company Limited——32 
 2.3.4 Ogun State Ministry of Housing ————-33 
  2.4 Summary———————–35 

Chapter 3    REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE—————36 
  3.0. Introduction——————-36 
  3.1.0 Evaluation Research —————-39 
       3.1.1 Programme Theory in Evaluation of Social Programmes ————40 
 3.2.0 Studies in Public Housing——————43 
3.3.0 Evaluation of Public Housing ———— 46       
 3.3.1 Dimensions of Evaluation of Public Housing——-47 
   3.3.2 Levels of Evaluation of public Housing ———–48 
3.4.0 Approaches to Evaluation of Public Housing ———- —- ——–50 
3.4.1  Post Occupancy Evaluations—————–51 
3.4.2  Satisfaction Studies      —–   ——-55 
3.4.3  Evaluation of Quality—————–60 
3.4.4  Evaluation of Housing Adequacy————66 
(i)Decent Housing——————–69 
(ii) Safe Housing————-70 
(iii)Healthy Housing——————71
 (iv)Accessible Housing—————–74 
  (v) Affordable Housing—————-74 
 3.5.0 Methods of Evaluating Public Housing Schemes   ———76       
 3.6.0 Factors Influencing the Evaluation of Public Housing ————-78 
  3.7. 0 Housing and Quality of Life—————-80  
3.8.0 Summary———————–83 

Chapter 4   CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK   ——————85  
 4.0.0 Introduction—————-85
4.1.0 Programme Theory and Conceptual Approaches to Evaluation———–86 
4.2 The Conceptual Framework of the Study————88 
 4.3 Summary———————-89 
Chapter 5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY————-91 
  5.0 Introduction——————–91 
  5.1.0 Research Strategy——————–91 
 5.2.0    Sample Frame of Housing Units and Public Housing Organisations—-92 
  5.3.0 Sampling Techniques—————92 
 5.4.0 Sample Size of Housing Units and Staff Members of Organisations——92 
 5.5.0 Design of Data Collection Instruments————–94 
  5.6.0 Data Collection and Data Treatment—————-95 
5.6.1 Objective 1———————95 
 5.6.2 Objective 2——————–97 
5.6.3 Objective 3———————98 
5.6.4 Objective 4——————-98 
  5.6.5 Objective 5——————-100 
  5.7. Data Processing ———————-102 
 5.8.   Reliability and Validity Tests—————103 
 5.9 Summary———————–104 

Chapter 6    THE ORGANIZATIONAL CAPACITY OF PUBLIC HOUSING  
AGENCIES———————-106 

  6.0.0 Introduction—————–106 
  6.1.0 Socio-economic Characteristics of the Respondents (Staff)——106 
  6.2.0 Organizational Characteristics of the Public Housing Agencies ———-110 
  6.3.0 Organizational Capacity of the Public Housing Agencies———118 
      6.3.1 Individual Adequacy Scores on Overall Organizational Capacity—119 
      6.3.2 Contributing Factors to Overall Organisational Capacity—-119 
      6.3.3 Overall Adequacy of Management Component ————–121 
     6.3.4 Overall Adequacy of Resource Component ———–122 
6.4.0. Adequacy of Organisational Capacity of the Different Organizations——- —–123 
6.4.1 Contributing Attributes to Adequacy of organizational Capacity of the
 different Organizations———– ————–124 
 6.4.2 Contributing Attributes to Adequacy of Management Capacity across the    
  Organisations——- ——–125 
  6.4.3 Comparison of Organizational Capacity across the Agencies—–127 
 6.5 Summary———————–129 

 Chapter 7      CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSING PROVIDED BY THE PUBLIC    
HOUSING   AGENCIES——————131 

  7.0.0 Introduction—————- 131      
 7.1.0 Overall Housing Attributes ————– —— —–131 
 7.1.1 Additional Requirements in the Housing Units——-133 
      7.2.0 Housing Characteristics across the different Delivery Strategies —134  
7.2.1 Housing Unit Attributes——————134 
7.2.2 Housing Services and Infrastructure————–140 
7.2.3 Housing Estate Characteristics and Neighbourhood Facilities–143 
7.3.0 Comparative Analysis of Housing Characteristics in the four Delivery  
Strategies——————–146 
  7.4.0 Summary——————–147 

Chapter 8      SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RESIDENTS OF   
       PUBLIC HOUSING ESTATES ——————149 

 8.0.0 Introduction —————–149 
8.1.0 Socio-economic Characteristics of the Respondents in all the Housing Units–149 
 8.1.1 Socio-economic Characteristics of Residents across different Housing      
Delivery Strategies————-153 
 8.2 Summary———————–160 

Chapter 9    ASSESSMENT OF THE ADEQUACY OF PUBLIC HOUSING——-161  
9.0. Introduction——————161 
9.1.0 Overall Housing Adequacy—————-161 
 9.1.2 Contributing Attributes to Overall Housing Adequacy—-162 
9.1.3 Adequacy of Housing sub-Components————–163 
 (i) Adequacy of Housing Unit Attributes————–163 
 (ii) Adequacy of Housing Services and Infrastructure——–165 
(iii) Adequacy of Neighbourhood Facilities———–166 
(iv) Adequacy of Management of Facilities in the Housing Estates–166 
9.2.0 Housing Adequacy across the different Delivery Strategies——–168
 9.2.1 Contributing Attributes to Housing Adequacy across the different Strategies-      
 ————————169 
9.3.0 Adequacy Index Housing sub-Components——— 173 
   9.4.0 Variation in Housing Adequacy————– 176 
    9.4.1 Factors Influencing Overall Housing Adequacy——-177 
  9.5.0 Dimensions of Evaluation of Overall Housing Adequacy————-179  
   9.5.1 Dimensions of Evaluation of Housing Adequacy across the different Strategies      
   ————————–180 
   (i) The Core Housing Strategy———–180 
  (ii) The Turnkey Housing Delivery Strategy————-182 
  (iii) PPP Housing Delivery Strategy————–183 
  (iv)The Shell Housing Delivery Strategy—————- 185 
  9.5.2:  Comparison of Dimensions of Housing Adequacy Evaluation across the     
 Different Strategies————187 
 9.6 Summary——————-189 

Chapter 10    RESIDENTIAL SATISFACTION IN PUBLIC HOUSING ———–192 
  10.0.0 Introduction—————192 
  10.1.0 Evaluation of Residential Satisfaction———–192 
 10.1.1 Overall Residential Satisfaction————193 
10.1.2 Contribution of Housing Attributes to Overall Residential Satisfaction— 
—————194 
 10.1.3 Satisfaction with Housing Sub-Components——195 
  (i) Satisfaction with Housing Unit Attributes ————–196 
  (ii)  Satisfaction with Housing Services————197 
 (iii) Satisfaction with location of Neighbourhood Facilities——-197
(iv) Satisfaction with Socio-economic Environment of housing Estates 
       ——————-198 
       (v) Satisfaction with Management of Housing Estates——–199 
 10.2.0 Residential Satisfaction across the different Housing Delivery Strategies–201 
    10.2.1: Contribution of Housing Attributes to Residential Satisfaction across the  
  Delivery Strategies——————–202 

 10.3: Satisfaction with Housing sub-Components in all the Strategies—-209 
  10.3.1 Satisfaction with Housing sub-components across the Different Strategies
  —————–211 
   10.4 Variation in Satisfaction with housing sub-components——214 
      10.4.1 Variation in Satisfaction across Socio-economic characteristics of     
   Respondents———————-214    
     10.4.2 Factors affecting Residential Satisfaction in all the Housing Estates——-215 
     10.5 Dimensions of Evaluation of Residential Satisfaction in all the Housing Estates——–219 
     10.5 .1: Dimensions of Evaluation of Residential Satisfaction across the different  
   Strategies.———————-220 
   (i)Core Housing Delivery Strategy———— ———-220  
   (ii) The Turnkey Housing Delivery Strategy———–222 
   (iii) The Public-Private Partnership Housing Delivery Strategy—— 224 
   (iv)The Shell Housing Delivery Strategy——– —— 226 
   10.5.2 Comparison of Dimensions of Residential Satisfaction Evaluation across the   
 Different Strategies————- ——228  
    10.6 Summary——————–230 

Chapter 11 SATISFACTION WITH LIFE IN PUBLIC HOUSING ………………….233 
11.1.1 Satisfaction with Life in all the   Housing Estates——- 233 
     11.1.2: Satisfaction with Life across the different housing Delivery Strategies—234 
11.2.0 Variation in Satisfaction with Life in all the Housing Estates——- —–237  
       11.2.1: Factors Affecting Satisfaction with Life in all the Housing Estates——-237 
       11.2.2 Discriminants of Satisfaction with life in all the Housing Estates———-243 
 11.3. Summary———————243 
 
Chapter 12 SYNTHESIS, SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS——-245 
12.0. Introduction——————–245 
12.1. Overview of Research —————245      
12.2: Summary of Key Findings——————-247 
 12.3 Synthesis of Key Issues Arising from the Study————250  
 12.4 Implications of Study Findings ————-257 
 12.5 Areas for further Study————–260 
12.6 Concluding Remarks——————261 
REFERENCES———————262 

APPENDICES———————288 
Appendix 1:  Ogun State in Context of Nigeria ———-288 
Appendix 2: Floor Plans of Core Housing Units———-289 
 Appendix 3:  Floor Plan of Turnkey Housing Unit in OLokota Housing Estate ——–289 
Appendix 4: Floor Plan of Typical Housing Unit in the PPP Strategy———–290 
Appendix 5: Floor Plan of Typical Housing Unit in the Shell Strategy———-290 
Appendix 6:  Variables for Assessing Organizational Capacity ———291 
Appendix 7: Housing Attributes——————-292 
Appendix 8: Housing Adequacy Variables—————-293 
Appendix 9: Residential Satisfaction and Satisfaction with Life Variables——295  
Appendix 10: Survey Questionnaire (Staff of Public Housing Agencies) ——-297 
Appendix 11: Interview Guide———————300 
Appendix12: Housing Unit Survey Questionnaire—————-301  
Appendix 13: Observation Schedule————–307 
 Appendix 14: Reliability Test of Scale of Measurement of Staff Survey Questionnaire——–309 
 Appendix 15: Reliability Test of Scale for Measurement for Housing Adequacy——-310 
Appendix 16: Reliability Test of Scale for Measurement for Residential Satisfaction and  
      Satisfaction with life—————-311 
Appendix 17: Number of Persons per Room————–312 
Appendix 18: Layouts of Media Village and OGD Housing Estates Asero, Abeokuta ———-313 
Appendix 19: Categorical Principal Component Analysis of Dimensions of Housing Adequacy  Evaluation in All the Housing Estates (Model Summary)——–314 
Appendix 20: Categorical Principal Component Analysis of Dimensions of Housing Adequacy 
     Evaluation in the Core Housing Estates (Model Summary)——–315  
Appendix 21: Categorical Principal Component Analysis of dimensions of housing adequacy    
     evaluation in the Turnkey housing estates (Model Summary)————316  
Appendix 22: Categorical Principal Component Analysis of dimensions of housing adequacy 
       evaluation in the  PPP housing estate (Model Summary) ——317 
Appendix 23: Categorical Principal Component Analysis of dimensions of housing adequacy  
       evaluation in the Shell housing estates (Model Summary)——318 
Appendix 24:  Categorical Principal Component Analysis of dimensions of Residential   
      Satisfaction in all the housing estates (Model Summary) ——–319  
Appendix 25: Categorical Principal Component Analysis of Residential Satisfaction evaluation in   
      the Shell housing estates (Model Summary)————–320 
Appendix 26:  Categorical Principal Component Analysis of dimensions of Residential   
     Satisfaction evaluation in the Turnkey housing estates (Model Summary) ——–321 
Appendix 27:   Categorical Principal Component Analysis of dimensions of residential  
      Satisfaction evaluation in the PPP housing estates (Model Summary) –322 
Appendix 28: Categorical Principal Component Analysis of dimensions of Residential       
      Satisfaction evaluation in the Shell housing estates (Model Summary)———-323 
Appendix 29:  Discriminant Analysis of Satisfaction with Life in Housings Estates– 324
LIST OF TABLES 
Table 2.1: The Population Distribution across Local Government   Areas in Ogun State——–14 
Table 2.2:  Planned and Completed Housing Units by the OSHC ——–30 
Table 2.3: Planned and Completed Housing Units by OPIC. ————–32 
Table 2.4: Planned and Completed Housing Units by the GCDCL——–33 
Table 2.5: Planned and Completed Housing Schemes by the MOH——-34 
Table 5.1: Sample Size of Housing Units for Each Housing Delivery Strategy———–93 
Table 5.2: Distribution of Questionnaires to Residents of Housing units according to  
   Housing Delivery Strategies ——————102 
Table 6.1: Average Monthly Income of Respondents————-107 
Table 6.2:  Highest Educational Qualification of Respondents——- —107 
Table 6.3: Areas of Specialization of Respondents—————-108 
Table 6.4: Designation of Respondents——————–109 
Table 6.5: Organizational Characteristics—————–118 
Table 6.6: Individual Score on Overall Organizational Capacity——–119 
Table 6.7: Contributing Components to Overall Organizational Capacity——120 
Table 6.8: Individual Scores on Adequacy of Management Capacity————122 
Table 6.9: Individuals’ Scores on Adequacy of Resources Capacity ————122 
Table 6.10: Contributing Attributes to Organizational Capacity across the Organizations—–125 
Table 6.11: Adequacy Indices of Organizational Capacity of the four 
  Organizations——————127 
Table 7.1: Additional Requirements in the Housing Units —————134 
Table 7.2: Housing Typology————–134
Table 7.3: Sizes of Housing Units—————–135 
Table: 7.4 Additional Spatial Requirements in the Housing Units across the Strategies———136 
Table 7.5: Mode of Acquisition of Housing Units—————–136 
Table 7.6: Evaluation of Housing Acquisition Process————137
Table 7.7 Evaluation of Cost of Housing—————–138 
Table 7.8: Descriptive Statistics of Occupancy Ratio ———–139 
Table 7.9: Mode of Water Supply in Housing Units ————-141 
Table 7.10: Source of Power Supply to Housing Units ———142 
Tables 7.11: Refuse Collection and Disposal from Housing Units——143 
Table 7.12: Housing Estate Characteristics and Facilities across the Housing Delivery 
  Strategies———————–145 
Table 8.1: Respondents’ Sex————–153 
Table 8.2 Age Grouping of Respondents——————153 
Table 8.3: Marital Status of Respondents——————154 
Table 8.4: Educational Attainment of Respondents—————155 
Table 8.5: Employment Sector of Respondents———-155 
Table 8.6: Personal Average Monthly Income of Respondents———-156 
Table 8.7: Length of Residency in the Housing Estate———–157 
Table 8.8: Type of Tenure—————–157 
Table 8.9: Household Sizes of Respondents————–158 
Table 9.1: Overall Housing Adequacy ——————–162 
Table 9.2: Contribution of   Housing Attributes to Housing Adequacy ———163 
Table 9.3:  Adequacy of Housing Unit Attributes—————-164 
Table 9.4:  Adequacy of Housing Services and Infrastructure———–165 
Table 9.5: Adequacy of Neighbourhood Facilities—————166  
Table 9.6: Adequacy of Management of Facilities —————167 
Table 9.7: Contributing Attributes to Housing adequacy across the Delivery Strategies——-170 
Table 9.8:- Sub-Components Adequacy Indices——————174
Table 9.9: Adequacy Indices Housing Sub-components across the different Housing Delivery    
  Strategies ———————–174       
Table 9.10: Regression Coefficients of Predictors of Overall Housing Adequacy——-178 
Table 9.11: Dimensions of Housing Adequacy Description in all the Housing Estates–180 
Table 9.12: Dimensions of Housing Adequacy Description in the Core Housing Strategy——181 
Table 9.13: Dimensions of Housing Adequacy Description in the Turnkey Strategy—-183 
Table 9.14: Dimensions of Housing Adequacy Description in the PPP Strategy———184 
Table 9.15: Dimensions of Housing Adequacy Description in the Shell Strategy ——-186 
Table 9.16: Summary of Result of Factor Analysis on Housing Adequacy across the Strategies 
 ——————–188 
Table 10.1 Overall Residential Satisfaction in all the housing estates————193 
Table 10.2: Contribution of Housing Attributes to overall Residential Satisfaction—–195 
Table 10.3: Satisfaction with Housing Unit Attribute————-196 
Table 10.4: Satisfaction with Housing Unit Services————-197 
Table 10.5: Satisfaction with location of Neighbourhood Facilities – ———–198 
Table 10.6: Satisfaction with Socio-Economic Environment of Housing Estates——-199 
Table 10.7: Satisfaction with Management of Housing Estates– ——-200 
Table 10.8: Contribution of Housing Attributes to Residential Satisfaction—–204
Table 10.9: Satisfaction Indices of Housing sub-Components———–210 
Table 10.10: Satisfaction Indices across Housing Delivery Strategies———–212 
Table 10.11:  Regression Coefficients of Predictors of Residential Satisfaction in all the Housing  Estates————————216 
Table 10.12: Alternative Regression Coefficients of Predictors of Residential Satisfaction in all  the Housing Estates without housing adequacy as  a predictor————218 
Table 10.13: Dimensions of Residential Satisfaction Description in all the Housing Estates- -220 
Table 10.14: Dimensions of Residential Satisfaction Description in the Core housing Estates 221 
Table 10.15: Dimensions of Residential Satisfaction Description in all Turnkey Housing   
    Estates—————-223 
Table 10.16: Dimensions of Residential Satisfaction Description in the PPP Housing Estate–225 
Table10.17: Dimensions of Residential Satisfaction Description in the Shell Housing Estate-227 
Table 10.18: Summary of Result of Factor Analysis on Residential Satisfaction across the  
  Strategies ———————-229 
Table 11.1: Regression Coefficients of Predictors of Satisfaction with Life in all the Housing  
  Estate——————239 
Table 11.2: Discriminant Analysis of Satisfaction with life in all the Housing Estates ——–241 
Table 11.3: Structure Matrix of Discriminant Analysis of Satisfaction with Life——–242

 LIST OF FIGURES 
Figure 2.1: Map of Ogun State Showing the Local Government Areas———–11 
Figure 3.1:  Components of a typical Programme Impact Theory——- 42 
Figure 3.2 Basic Logic Model————–42 
Figure 3.3: Quality Of Life: A System Model————-81 
Figure 4.1: The Theoretical and Conceptual Framework of the study ————90 
Figure 6.1: Age Group of Respondents————107 
Figure 6.2: Years of Experience of Respondents———-110 
Figure 6.3: Organizational Structure of the Ogun State Housing Corporation————111 
Figure 6.4: Organizational Structure of the Ogun State Property and Investment Company 
 (OPIC) and Gateway City Development Company Limited (GCDCL)——–112 
Figure 6.5: Organizational Structure of the Ogun Sate Ministry of Housing—–113 
Figure 6.6 Adequacy of Organizational Capacity across the Organizations——124 
Figure 7.1: Housing Typology———————-132 
Figure 7.2: Sizes of Dwelling Units—————-132 
Figure 8.1: Age Groups of Respondents——————–150 
Figure 8.2: Personal Average Monthly Income (Naira) ———–151 
Figure 8.3: Household Sizes—————-152 
Figure 8.4: Tenure Types——————-152 
Figure 9.1: Individual Housing Adequacy Rating across the Delivery Strategies——–169 
Figure 10.1: Residential Satisfaction Across Housing Delivery Strategies——-202 
Figure 11.1: Residents’ Satisfaction with Life In public Housing——–234 
Figure: 11.2: Satisfaction with life across the different housing delivery Strategies—–235 

LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS 
Plat 1:  View of the Core Housing Estate—————–21 
Plate 2: View of the Media Village, Abeokuta at Commissioning——-23 
Plate 3: Typical two-bed room semi-detached house in the Media Village, Abeokuta ———-23 
Plate 4: Three Bed room Bungalow in the Presidential Mandate Housing Scheme constructed  
with burnt bricks——————–24 
Plate 5: Typical Detached 3-bed room bungalow in the OGD-Sparklight Estate, Ibafo———26 
Plate 6: View of unoccupied housing units in the OGD-Sparklight Estate, Ibafo——–26 
Plate 7: View of unoccupied housing units in the OGD-Sparklight Estate, Ibafo——–27 
Plate 8: Occupied Housing Units in the OSHC Estate, Ota—————-28