PRODUCTION OF CHEMICAL INSECTICIDES USING NEEM OIL AND THE PROCESSES INVOLVED

Project TopicsPRODUCTION OF CHEMICAL INSECTICIDES USING NEEM OIL AND THE PROCESSES INVOLVED

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

         According to pedia “An insecticide is a chemical used against insects. They include homicides and parricides used against the eggs and larvae of insects, respectively. Insecticides are used in agriculture, medicine, industry, and general home use. The use of insecticides is believed to be one of the major factors behind the increase in agricultural productivity in the 20th century.   Nearly all insecticides have the potential to significantly alter ecosystems; many are toxic to humans; and others are concentrated in the food chain.

The classification of insecticides is done in several different ways

  • Systemic insecticides are incorporated by treated plants. Insects ingest the insecticide while feeding on the plants.
  • Contact insecticides are toxic to insects brought into direct contact. Efficacy is often related to the quality of pesticide application, with small droplets (such as aerosols) often improving performance. 
  • Natural insecticides, such as nicotine, pyrethrum, and neem extracts are made by plants as defenses against insects. Nicotine-based insecticides are still being widely used in the US and Canada, however they are barred in the EU
  • Plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs) are insecticidal substances produced by plants after genetic modification.  For instance, a gene that codes for a specific Baccilus thuringiensis biocidal protein is introduced into a crop plant’s genetic material. Then, the plant manufactures the protein. Since the biocide is incorporated into the plant, additional applications, at least of the same compound, are not required.
  • Inorganic insecticides are manufactured with metals and include arsenates, copper compounds and fluorine compounds, which are now seldom used, and sulfur, which is commonly used.
  • Organic insecticides are synthetic chemicals that comprise the largest numbers of pesticides available for use today.
  • Mode of action—how the pesticide kills or inactivates a pest—is another way of classifying insecticides. Mode of action is important in predicting whether an insecticide will be toxic to unrelated species, such as fish, birds, and mammals.

1.2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

          This study focuses on the production of chemical insecticides using neem oil and the process or procedures involve in neem oil.

 1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

          The purpose of this study is to known and illustrate the following:

1.     The equipment involve in the production of chemical insecticide using neem oil

2.     The quality or measurement of the materials needed for the production of chemical insecticide using neem oil

3.     The acidic content of the materials needed for the production of chemical insecticide using neem oil