Project TopicsSEXUAL ATTITUDE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN NIGERIA
The study examined and determined sexual activities of the selected Senior Secondary School Students in Ikorodu Local Government Area of Lagos State.
The actual aim of the study was to identify the attitudes of Senior Secondary School Students to sexual matters so as to serve as basis for the introduction of sex education in our secondary schools.
Based on the foregoing purpose, five questions were raised and favour null hypotheses are postulated.
Six Secondary Schools were randomly sampled in Ikorodu Local Government. The 180 students composed of 90 randomly selected schools in the local government Area.
A questionnaire consisting of eighteen items was used. Test-retest reliability of the instrument was chi-square. 2×2 contingency statistical samples were used to test the four hypothesis postulated at 0.05 level significance.
The secondary school is the unit of Nigeria’s formal education institution, which covers the period of later childhood through adolescent. During this period, the child experiences accelerated rate of development in secondary sex attributes.
These include broken voice, natural emission in boy and enlarged breast in girls; armpit and public hairs in boys and girls and the development of heterosexual interests, coupled with this, is elongated and expansion of penis, enlargement of testis and other primary sex organs (New Jersey, 1980).
The Secondary School age or adolescent stage is the period of identifying oneself to a total person. It is the period or stage in which the individual adolescent asks questions about themselves. The search for answers involves much explanation, question and seeking supportive figures. Peers are mostly the supporter because they are the ones with whom the lines of communication are most open. Parental influence therefore, may seem to be minimal while peers influence is stronger.
1.2 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
According to history, sexual activities have served as means of expressing some mankind’s best and worst emotion (Read and Greene, 1975)
A cursory review of human activities extending from the beginning of recorded history throughout the Dark Age and renaissance reveals the instances of Rape, adultery and illegitimacy (Greene, 1975)
The situation has not changed much in contemporary time. Efforts are however being made by health education experts, religious leaders, youth clubs and organisation to bring a positive attitude change in people education of children and youths about their sexually and appropriate sex roles.
The sex life of Senior Secondary School (SSS) students poses a social problem which society has ignored primarily because it has workable and acceptable answer (Grauley Stewart Diaz 1973).
The youths of this generation have more opportunity than ever before to indulge sexual intercourse because three controlling fears of the past, social disgrace, venereal disease, unwanted pregnancy have been reduced by breakthrough in medicine and related discipline. Also diversified job opportunities enable parents to travel great distance for better career and recreation. This reduced the effectiveness of family and community supervision of the adolescent (Grauley et al 1973).
Apart from social disapproval of adolescent sexual later experimentation, there are serious health related problems. These include exposure to venereal diseases and its medical consequence due to delayed and appropriate treatment, prostitution, abortion, by quacks, the use of questionable method of birth control and finally premature termination of education which increased social liabilities.
There are efforts to deal openly and constructively with these sex related problems some of which is that, children should know about venereal disease by the time they reach the age of puberty. Information of this kind should be linked with advice on the value of self-restrain and should stress the idealistic views of the union of man and woman in marriage. Also proper understanding and appropriate sex education will be remedy to teenage pregnancies in Nigeria.
The present generation of Nigeria Secondary School Student are much more younger than those of the last decade, this is due to new innovation in Nigeria education as well as the awareness and concern of parents in sending their children to school at a much tender age.
Although, they are younger in chronological age, they mature much earlier than predecessors. This was attributed to better nutrition, improved standard of living and health care services. In order to be of assistance to the adolescent in adjusting to the demand of the society in sex, there is need for a thorough understanding of the adolescents especially with respect to their attitudes of sex.
The parent and communities attitude towards sexually or sexual behaviour was that of comparison between their own generation and that of the present generation of the youths.
Assumptions and speculative reports about Senior Secondary Student’s sexual attitudes are inconsistent regarding changes in students’ sexual attitudes. For instance, it is generally assumed that there has been a great increase in numbers of active Secondary Schools in the recent past. But is it really the case?
This and related questions are what the study is set about to investigate and come out with the correct data related to Senior Secondary School Student sex attitudes in the recent years.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study was to identify the sexual attitudes of the Senior Secondary School Students so as to serve as basis for the introduction of sex instruction or sex education in our Secondary Schools.
The study will also look at the extent of such behaviour among the Secondary School Student and their attitudes towards current trend in their sex life. This would probably serve as a source of information for those responsible for the welfare of the adolescent, that is, Parents, Teachers, Federal and State Ministry of Social Development, Youth and Sports.
1.4 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problem of the study is to determine the sexual attitudes of the Senior Secondary School Students in Ikorodu Local Government Area. To determine the sexual attitudes among the students, the study was designed to answer the following questions
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Will student’s religious beliefs affect their sexual attitudes
2. Will the family’s level of education affect student’s sexual experience?
3. Will there be difference between male and female sexual initiation?
4. What is the level of sexual discussion among the adolescent peer group and parents?
The following hypothesis will be tested in this study:
1. There will be no significant difference in the sexual attitudes exhibited by religious and non-religious students.
2. There will be no significant difference between student from highly educated family and student from less educated family as far as sexual experience is concerned.
3. There will be no significant difference in the sexual initiation between male and female adolescent students.
4. There is no significant difference in the level of sexual discussion among the adolescent peer group and parents.
1.7 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The research narrowed the scope of the study to few Secondary Schools in Ikorodu Local Government Area of Lagos State.
Ikorodu Grammar School, Ikoyi, … The Study were limited to Senior Secondary School Classes 2 and 3 male and female students alone because they constituted adolescent age group of 14 – 19 years where sexual personality traits had been quite established and pronounced for significant study.
1.8 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1. The importance of the study is that of revealing the sexual attitudes of Senior Secondary School Students despite the disapproval of the society towards pre-marital sexual behaviour.
2. To identify the source of information about sex and how sex education in schools can prevent pre-marital sexual activity, spread venereal diseases and teenage pregnancy in our schools and the society at large.
3. The findings of the study could also be used as formative evaluation procedure to determine the direction of the programme of sex instruction in our schools.
4. It may also serve as reference for present and future sex education research in Nigeria, because the controversies which its findings may generates are expected to be ground for future research as well as awakening the realization of the need for family life as sex education as a formal academic discipline in Nigerian Secondary Schools.
1.9 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Abortion: Expulsion of the foetus from the womb during the first 22 weeks of pregnancy.
Puberty: This is a period during which adolescents reach sexual maturity.
Chronological Age: In order of time in which a person is born.
Illegitimate: Not authorised by law, born of parents who are not married to each other.
Lag: Go too slow, not keep up with
Quack: Person dishonestly claiming to have knowledge and skill especially in medicine.
Rape: This is an act of forcing sexual intercourse on a woman or girl, spouse, legal husband or wife.
Venereal Disease: Disease contacted by sexual intercourses
Virgin: Girls, women, or men who has not experienced sexual union.
Hormone: A substance which is released from special glands into the blood stream and stimulates other glands on tissue into activity.
Heterosexual: Sexual activity and feelings direction at individual of opposite sex.
Masturbation: Stimulation of one’s body to produce sexual pleasure and orgasms.
Nocturnal Emission: Dreams involving in orgasms and ejaculation by a male often called “wet dream”.
Peer Group: Individual of approximately the same age and similar social values who form groups.
Petting: A way of expressing one’s sexual feelings or love e.g. kissing, romance, holding, or embracing etc.
Pre-marital Sex: Engaging in sexual activities before getting married.
Trait: An aspect of personality that is reasonably characteristic of a person is relatively consistent overtime and distinguishes that person in some way from other people.